Years and years ago, before Krita had even had one single official or unofficial release, we created something called “klik” packages. Basically, an iso that would contain Krita and all its dependencies and that could be used to run Krita on any Linux distribution. The klik packages were quite hard to maintain and hard-ish to use, though. It was easier than trying to build rpm’s for SuSE, Redhat, Mandrake, debs for Debian, PKG for Slackware and whatever else was out there, though.
Fast-forward a decade. Despite advances like Launchpad and the OpenSuse OBS, it’s still hard to create Krita packages for every distribution. There are more distributions, more versions, more architectures… Just maintaining the Krita Lime PPA for Ubuntu and derivatives takes a serious amount of time. Basically, the problem of distributing ones application to Linux users is still a problem.
And if you’re working on even a moderately popular application that has a moderate development velocity, if it’s an application that users rely on to do their job, you really want to provide your work in a binary form.
Distributions do a good job combining all the software we free software developers write into distribution releases; distributions really make it easy and convenient to install a wide range of applications. But there is a big mis-match between what users need and what they get:
Most users want a stable, unchanging operating system that they can install and use without upgrading for a couple of years. On top of that, some users don’t want to be bothered by desktop upgrades, others cannot live without the latest desktop. That’s often a personal preference, or a matter of not caring about the desktop as long as it can launch their work applications. And those work applications, the production tools they use to earn their money with, those need to be the very latest version.
So, Krita users often still use Ubuntu 12.04. It’s the oldest LTS release that’s still supported. But Ubuntu doesn’t support it by providing the latest productivity applications on top of the stable base, not even through backport ppa’s and if you use the Ubuntu-provided Krita, you’re stuck in what now feels like the dark ages.
Enter the spiritual successor of Klik: AppImage. AppImages sprang into the limelight when they got Linus Torvalds’ Seal of Approval. That distributing software on Linux is problematical has been a thorn in his eye for a long time, and when particularly when he started working on an end-user application: Subsurface. When the person behind AppImage created a SubSurface package, that resulted in a lot of publicity.
And I contacted Simon to ask for help creating a Krita AppImage. After all, we are in the middle of working up to a 3.0 release, and I’d like to be able to produce regular development builds, not just for Windows and OSX, but also for Linux.
Krita’s AppImage is built on CentOS 6.5 using a long bash script. It updates CentOS using the Epel repository so we get a reasonably recent Qt5, then installs an updated compiler, gets Krita, installs dependencies, builds dependencies, builds krita, checks all the output for their dependencies, copies them into a tree, edits eveyrthing to look for dependencies locally instead of on the system and packages it up with a small executable that runs the Krita executable. The one thing that was really hard was figuring out how to integrate with the GPU drivers.
You can get the recipe here: https://github.com/boudewijnrempt/AppImages/blob/master/recipes/krita/Recipe.
There are some refinements possible: AppImage offers a way to update AppImages by only downloading and applying a delta, which we don’t support yet. It’s possible to setup a system where we can generate nightly builds, but I haven’t figured out the combination of docker, travis and github that supports that yet, either. And Simon is working on an improved first-run script that would ask the user whether they would like to have some desktop integration, for instance for file handling or menu integration. All of that is in the future. There are also a handful of distributions that disable fuse by default, or close it for non-root users. Unfortunately, CentOS is one of them…
For now, though, it’s really easy to generate binaries that seem to run quite well on a wide variety of Linux distributions, that performs just like native (well, the packages is native), are easy to download and run. So I’m ready to declare “problem solved!”